A fortress (from latin: castellum) is a sort of fortified shape built in the course of the middle a long time with the aid of predominantly the nobility or royalty and by way of military orders. pupils debate the scope of the phrase citadel, however typically don’t forget it to be the private fortified residence of a lord or noble. this is wonderful from a palace, which isn’t always fortified; from a fort, which became now not constantly a residence for royalty or nobility; and from a fortified agreement, which become a public defence – though there are many similarities among these sorts of production. usage of the term has varied over time and has been carried out to systems as numerous as hill forts and united states of america homes. over the approximately 900 years that castles had been built, they took on a terrific many paperwork with many distinctive features, despite the fact that a few, along with curtain partitions and arrowslits, have been commonplace.
European-fashion castles originated in the ninth and tenth centuries, after the autumn of the carolingian empire ended in its territory being divided amongst character lords and princes. those nobles built castles to govern the area right away surrounding them and the castles were each offensive and defensive structures; they furnished a base from which raids can be launched in addition to provided protection from enemies. despite the fact that their military origins are often emphasized in fortress studies, the structures additionally served as centres of administration and emblems of power. urban castles had been used to manipulate the local populace and important travel routes, and rural castles had been regularly located near functions that were quintessential to lifestyles in the community, which includes mills, fertile land, or a water source.
Many castles had been at the start constructed from earth and wooden, however had their defences changed later via stone. early castles frequently exploited natural defences, missing functions inclusive of towers and arrowslits and counting on a valuable keep. in the past due 12th and early thirteenth centuries, a scientific technique to fortress defence emerged. this brought about the proliferation of towers, with an emphasis on flanking hearth. many new castles had been polygonal or depended on concentric defence – several tiers of defence within each other that could all characteristic on the identical time to maximise the fort’s firepower. these adjustments in defence were attributed to a mixture of castle generation from the crusades, such as concentric fortification, and inspiration from in advance defences, together with roman forts. not all of the factors of citadel structure have been army in nature, so that gadgets which include moats developed from their original motive of defence into symbols of power. a few grand castles had lengthy winding techniques meant to electrify and dominate their panorama.
Even though gunpowder changed into introduced to europe within the 14th century, it did no longer drastically have an effect on castle building until the fifteenth century, when artillery became effective enough to interrupt thru stone partitions. at the same time as castles endured to be built properly into the sixteenth century, new strategies to cope with progressed cannon fire made them uncomfortable and unwanted locations to live. as a end result, proper castles went into decline and were replaced by way of artillery forts with out a function in civil administration, and u . s . a . houses that had been indefensible. from the 18th century onwards, there has been a renewed interest in castles with the development of mock castles, a part of a romantic revival of gothic structure, but that they had no army cause.
The phrase citadel is derived from the latin word castellum, that is a diminutive of the word castrum, which means “fortified region”. the old English castel, vintage french castel or chastel, french château, spanish castillo, italian castello, and some of phrases in different languages additionally derive from castellum. the phrase castle become added into English shortly before the norman conquest to indicate this sort of constructing, which turned into then new to england.
In its best terms, the definition of a fortress widespread among lecturers is “a non-public fortified house”. this contrasts with in advance fortifications, along with anglo-saxon brush and walled cities which include constantinople and antioch inside the center east; castles have been not communal defences but were constructed and owned by using the nearby feudal lords, either for themselves or for his or her monarch. feudalism turned into the hyperlink between a lord and his vassal where, in go back for navy provider and the expectancy of loyalty, the lord might provide the vassal land. in the past due 20th century, there has been a fashion to refine the definition of a fort by means of along with the criterion of feudal ownership, therefore tying castles to the medieval period; but, this does not necessarily replicate the terminology used within the medieval period. in the course of the first campaign (1096–1099), the Frankish armies encountered walled settlements and forts that they indiscriminately referred to as castles, but which could no longer be taken into consideration as such below the present day definition.
castles served a number of purposes, the most crucial of which have been navy, administrative, and domestic. as well as protecting systems, castles were additionally offensive gear which can be used as a base of operations in enemy territory. castles were hooked up with the aid of norman invaders of britain for each defensive functions and to pacify the u . s .’s inhabitants. as william the conqueror superior via england, he fortified key positions to cozy the land he had taken. among 1066 and 1087, he mounted 36 castles inclusive of warwick castle, which he used to guard against revolt in the English midlands.[
In the direction of the end of the center a long time, castles tended to lose their military significance due to the advent of powerful cannons and everlasting artillery fortifications; as a result, castles have become extra critical as residences and statements of power. a fort could act as a stronghold and jail but was also an area in which a knight or lord ought to entertain his friends. over time the aesthetics of the design became greater vital, as the citadel’s look and length started out to reflect the prestige and strength of its occupant. cozy homes were frequently fashioned within their fortified partitions. even though castles nonetheless supplied safety from low tiers of violence in later intervals, finally they had been succeeded by means of u . s . a . homes as high status residences.
Fort is occasionally used as a catch-all term for all kinds of fortifications and, as a result, has been misapplied inside the technical experience. an example of that is maiden fortress which, regardless of the name, is an iron age hill fort which had a completely distinctive beginning and cause.even though “fortress” has now not come to be a widespread term for a manor house (like château in french and sch loss in german), many manor homes incorporate “castle” in their call whilst having few if any of the architectural traits, usually as their proprietors liked to hold a link to the beyond and felt the term “castle” changed into a masculine expression in their energy. in scholarship the fort, as described above, is usually time-honored as a coherent concept, originating in europe and later spreading to parts of the middle east, in which they had been added by way of ecu crusaders. this coherent group shared a common starting place, treated a selected mode of conflict, and exchanged impacts.in one-of-a-kind areas of the arena, analogous systems shared features of fortification and other defining characteristics related to the concept of a castle, though they originated in specific durations and circumstances and skilled differing evolution and impacts. as an instance, shiro in japan, described as castles by historian stephen turnbull, underwent “a totally specific developmental history, had been constructed in a completely extraordinary manner and were designed to resist assaults of a totally extraordinary nature”. even as EU castles built from the past due twelfth and early 13th century onwards had been typically stone, shiro were predominantly timber buildings into the sixteenth century.
By means of the sixteenth century, whilst jap and EU cultures met, fortification in europe had moved beyond castles and depended on innovations such as the italian hint italienne and big name forts. forts in India gift a comparable case; when they have been encountered by using the british inside the 17th century, castles in europe had normally fallen out of use militarily. like shiro, the Indian forts, durga or drug in sanskrit, shared features with castles in europe consisting of performing as a domicile for a lord in addition to being fortifications. they too evolved in another way from the structures referred to as castles that had their origins in europe.
A motet turned into an earthen mound with a flat top. it was regularly synthetic, although every so often it included a per-current feature of the panorama. the excavation of earth to make the mound left a ditch around the motte, called a moat (which can be both moist or dry). “motte” and “moat” derive from the same vintage french phrase, indicating that the functions had been in the beginning related and relied on each different for their creation. although the motte is normally associated with the bailey to form a motte-and-bailey castle, this changed into no longer usually the case and there are instances where a motte existed on its very own.
“Motte” refers back to the mound by myself, however it become regularly surmounted by using a fortified shape, consisting of a keep, and the flat top could be surrounded by way of a palisade. it changed into commonplace for the motte to be reached over a flying bridge (a bridge over the ditch from the counterscarp of the ditch to the edge of the pinnacle of the mound), as shown inside the bayeux tapestry’s depiction of château DE dinan. now and again a motte blanketed an older citadel or hall, whose rooms became underground garage regions and prisons under a new hold.
Bailey and enceinte
A bailey, also called a ward, become a fortified enclosure. it turned into a not unusual function of castles, and most had at the least one. the maintain on pinnacle of the motte turned into the abode of the lord in rate of the citadel and a bastion of final defence, even as the bailey became the home of the rest of the lord’s household and gave them protection. the barracks for the garrison, stables, workshops, and garage centers had been regularly observed in the bailey. water became provided by a properly or cistern. through the years the focus of excessive fame accommodation shifted from the preserve to the bailey; this resulted within the introduction of any other bailey that separated the high repute buildings – which include the lord’s chambers and the chapel – from the regular structures such as the workshops and barracks.
From the late twelfth century there was a trend for knights to transport out of the small houses they had previously occupied in the bailey to stay in fortified houses within the nation-state. despite the fact that frequently associated with the motte-and-bailey type of fortress, baileys can also be located as unbiased shielding systems. these simple fortifications have been known as ringworks. the enceinte become the fortress’s foremost protecting enclosure, and the terms “bailey” and “enceinte” are related. a fort ought to have numerous baileys however best one enceinte. castles and not using a preserve, which depended on their outer defences for protection, are once in a while known as enceinte castles; those have been the earliest shape of castles, earlier than the maintain was brought in the 10th century.